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Answer Questions Below

I’m working on a Anatomy exercise and need support.

Answer the 3 questions below and reply to each student.

Student Reply must be over 200 words.

Make sure all student replies you start it with Hello (Student Name),

Please upload each question in different word documents.

******Question 3 requires you to look at week 2 protocol document for instructions and requires week 2 assignment format and week 2 lab exercise . *************(documents attached)

Question 1:

Describe the location and the function of the skeletal system. Explain the different classifications of bone and provide at least two examples of each type. Further, explain the process of bone growth and repair.

Use two scholarly sources (one may be your course text) to support your initial post. All sources must be referenced and cited according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length.

Student Reply 1: Christopher Kolodziey

The muscular system consists of all the muscles that help the body move both voluntary and involuntary ways. Muscle tissue can be one of three types, skeletal, cardiac or smooth. Muscle tissue is constructed of bundles of these muscle fibers. Each fiber is approximately the diameter of a human hair. Under the direction of the nervous system, all the muscles provide for the motion of some type for your body (Colbert, 2013, 7.1). If you wanted to lift a cup to drink you would voluntarily lift your arm to your mouth using the force of your muscles to contract to lift the cup up to your mouth. Rotating the cup to drink would use another set of muscles allowing the once contracted muscles to relax. The muscles work together to shorten or lengthen to get the range of motion. Muscles also work on their own which is called involuntary. The muscles that control internal organs work involuntarily as the stomach works on its own without cues to function. Muscles store glycogen which gets turned into glucose which provides energy for the (ATP) adenosine triphosphate, which powers the muscle. The (ATP) adenosine triphosphate creates energy for the muscles while (Ca) Calcium helps the contraction and relaxation. If the muscles are not used regularly the can suffer from atrophy which is the breakdown of the muscle. Weight training at any age can help prevent atrophy. The structural changes of skeletal muscle that occur with aging are similar to those observed with inactivity, which undoubtedly plays a major role in the loss of muscle mass in old age (Narici 2016, pg. 281).

Colbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee. K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals (2nd ed.). Boston: MA. Pearson Education.

Narici, M., Franchi, M., & Maganaris, C. (2016). Muscle structural assembly and functional consequences. Journal of Experimental Biology, 219(2), 276. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford….

Student Reply 2: Denise Scheuer

  • Describe the location and the function of the skeletal system. Explain the different classifications of bone and provide at least two examples of each type. Further, explain the process of bone growth and repair.
  • The skeletal system consists of 206 bones as well as tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that protects them. The skeletal system performs vital functions such as support, movement, protection of the soft body parts, production of blood cells, helps us breathe, and stores minerals. Red marrow in the center of the bones produces red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and macrophages. In addition, your bones serve as a mineral bank for the three primary minerals in your body: calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium (Barron, 2013). Each part is important because it enables us to survive. There are 4 classifications of bone types, long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones. Irregular bones are complex shapes needed to connect to other bones. These types of bones have softer, spongy bone surrounded by a thin, compact layer of outer bone. An example of irregular bone is the vertebrate, which protects the spinal cord. Long bones are longer than they are wide and are found in your arms and legs (Colbert, Ankney, & Lee, 2013). An example of a long bone is the humerus. The humerus is the long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. It connects the scapula and the two bones of the lower arm, the radius and ulna.

    Ossification or osteogenesis is the formation of bone in the body. Bones grow longitudinally in order to lengthen (which makes you taller), and they grow horizontally (wider and thicker) so they can more efficiently support body weight and any other weight we support when we work or play (Colbert, Ankney, & Lee, 2013). The four types of cells involved in the formation and growth are called osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Osteoprogenitor cells are nonspecialized cells found in the periosteum, endosteum, and central canal of compact bone. Osteoblasts form the bones. Osteocytes are mature bone that were originally osteoblasts. Osteoclasts is formed from a type of white blood cell called a monocyte that is found in red bone marrow. Bones are constantly changing and over the course of a year or so, cells called, osteoclasts, break away old bone, replacing it with fresh new bone. So, when a bone is broken, your body automatically repairs itself.

    References

    Colbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee. K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals (2nd ed.). Boston: MA. Pearson Education.

    Jon Barron, (2013). Skeletal Anatomy & Bone Health. Retrieved from https://www.jonbarron.org/article/your-skeletal-sy…

    Question 2:

    Although the integumentary system is the largest organ of the human body, it is often overlooked. It has many essential functions in protecting the body. In your initial post:

    Discuss a minimum of three functions of the integumentary system.

    Explain the location, composition, and special features of the three layers of skin.

    Explain the importance of the function of sweat and sebaceous glands and the difference between apocrine and eccrine glands.

    Use two scholarly sources (one may be your course text) to support your initial response. All sources must be referenced and cited according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length.

    Student Reply 3: Stacy Layher

    What is the integumentary system? It is the most exposed system and is the protective covering of the body (Colbert, Ankeny & Lee, 2013). One function of the integumentary system is the skin, which helps protect you from diseases like the measles. A second function would be it provides storage for fatty tissue which is necessary for energy. And third it provides a natural sunscreen and helps keep the body from drying out (Colbert, Ankeny & Lee, 2013). One other item the skin does it helps us regulate our body temperature.

    What are the different layers of the skin? Epidermis, Dermis and Subcutaneous fascia. The epidermis layer is the skin that you can see or is the outside of your body. It is made up of cells that constantly shed, which is the skin flakes you may see. The cells are also being replaced. The epidermis layer does not contain any nerve cells. Also, with this skin layer the reason you get a “farmers tan” is because your skin is producing melanin to protect your skin from the sun, but it is only produced where needed which causes the tan line. Dermis is the next layer under the epidermis layer. This is considered the actual “true skin” as it contains many other items: tiny blood vessels, collagenous and elastic fibers, involuntary muscles, nerve endings, lymph vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands and oil glands (Colbert, Ankeny & Lee, 2013). The third layer which is then under the dermis layer is the subcutaneous fascia. This layer attaches to the muscles.

    Sweat glands are important because they help us regulate our body temperature. These glands are also known as eccrine glands. And sebaceous glands are important because they generate oil which helps keep our skin from drying out. These glands are usually around where hair grows also know as apocrine sweat glands.

    Something I found interesting is that your skin weighs approximately 20 pounds!

    REFERENCE

    Colbert, B., Ankeny, J., & Lee. K. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, and disease: An interactive journey for health professions (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

    McLafferty, E., Hendry, C., & Farley, A. (2012). The integumentary system: anatomy, physiology and function of skin. Nursing Standard, 27(3), 35–42. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford….

    Student Reply 4: Shana Swain

    The integumentary system includes skin, nails and hair. The skin is the largest organ of the human body. The 3 functions of the integumentary system include: protects us from various diseases, stores fatty cells and tissue for energy consumption, and produces vitamin D that helps the body absorb calcium and phosphorus (Colbert, 2013).

    The skin is made up of 3 layers and they each have very important functions as follows:

    Epidermis (top layer) – made up of 5 “stratum” layers that aid in the process of shedding old skin cells, regenerating new cells and repairing skin after injuries.

    Dermis (middle layer) – thicker layer than the epidermis that contains connective tissue, blood vessels, nerve fibers, hair follicles and sweat and sebaceous glands.

    Subcutaneous fascia (hypodermis) – this layer is comprised of fatty cells and tissue that protect and insulate the body. It also connected to the muscles that lie underneath this layer.

    There are 2 types of sweat glands and they are called the apocrine and eccrine glands. The apocrine glands are larger in their size and are associated with areas that have hair follicles and secrete an oily substance that lubricates the hair follicles. These glands are found in the axillary, anal and groin areas and start activation around the onset of puberty. The eccrine glands are smaller in their size and produce a salty, odorless fluid (sweat) and are more widely distributed across the skin’s surface and help to control body temperature (Bovell, 2018).

    References

    Colbert, B.J., Ankney, J., & Lee, K.T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals (2nd ed.), Boston: MA. Pearson Education.

    Bovell, D. L. (2018). The evolution of eccrine sweat gland research towards developing a model for human sweat gland function. Experimental Dermatology, 27(5), 544–550. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1111/…

    Question 3:

    For this assignment you must:

    Complete the muscle fatigue data table using the information gained from the animations, reading, and lab exercise.

    Answer Questions One through Six.

    Your assignment must be formatted according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

    ******Question 3 requires you to look at week 2 protocol document for instructions and requires week 2 assignment format and week 2 lab exercise . *************(documents attached)


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