Philosophical Methods

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Philosophical Methods

PART A. Explain the idea of analytic definition. How are they different from stipulations (stipulative definition)? Under what conditions the definition is correct. Explain using some convincing examples. (You can use examples discussed in our reading and on handouts.

PART B. propositional knowledge is defined as the conjunction of three conditions. Namely, someone knows that something is the case if and only if one has a belief that it is the case, this belief is justified; and it is true. This is, so called, the “JTB” definition of propositional knowledge (knowledge as a justified true belief). For example:
Stef knows that he had a banana for breakfast =def.
Stef beliefs that…
Stef has a justification that…
This belief is true Stef had a banana for breakfast)

Briefly explain each component of this definition (what it meant to believe, what it means that belief is justifies, and what it means that it is true). Illustrate your explanations with convincing examples.

PART D: (2 points) What is Gettier’s challenge to the traditional (JTB) analysis of knowledge. Explain what Gettier-like examples show.

PART E: (2 points) One possible answer to Gettier-like examples is that, in order to have knowledge, an agent must not reason through any false belief. Is this answer plausible or not? Explain using a convincing example.

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