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TOC o “1-3” h z u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc376296262 h 2Introduction PAGEREF _Toc376296263 h 4Problems encountered by the Expatriate PAGEREF _Toc376296264 h 5High and low context Communication problems PAGEREF _Toc376296265 h 5Corporate problems PAGEREF _Toc376296266 h 6Power distance PAGEREF _Toc376296267 h 8Individualism problem PAGEREF _Toc376296268 h 9Uncertainty Avoidance PAGEREF _Toc376296269 h 10Masculinity PAGEREF _Toc376296271 h 11Cultural problems PAGEREF _Toc376296272 h 11Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc376296273 h 12Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc376296274 h 13

AbstractExpatriate managers frequently encounter significant obstacles within their overseas workplaces. Whilst there is important investigation on expatriate administration and modification depending on the social individuality and acculturation philosophies, diminutive study speaking about the underlying expatriate awareness of cultural multiplicity within the host country. In an attempt to address the underlying break, the purpose of this learning is to reconnoiter how expatriate managers normally interpret their underlying experience of working within a new and ethnicity different workplace. The qualitative analysis recommends that the fundamental in the context that lies within the individual’s capability to modification and adapt yonder philosophy and etymological services. The fundamental managerial implication is the cross-cultural training can help with the development of the personal characteristics by the expatriate managers involving culturally difference workplaces. Within each country, particular cultures exist. Moreover, comparison of majority of business organizations has a variety of diverse cultures since there is diverse populace working in the company. Populace with similar religion, philosophies, language and values share a culture. Moreover, this is shared with all kinds of populace within the similar cultural system. An assessment is normally made of the underlying art of managing populace who are from diverse cultures taking into consideration their prevailing diverse set of values, traditions coupled with means of accomplishing various objectives. The discussion is purely presented of some of the underlying problems inherent within the host country where a parent company manager refutes or is unable of adopting that the existing indigenous culture in which the expatriate functions. Business organization strategies are normally obligatory and executed contrarily depending on the prevailing culture the decision maker. Managing human resources in foreign locations poses diverse problems and corresponding encounters of international trade had driven the trend for internationalism coupled with the production of expatriate assignments. There is thus dare need to effectively to administer the underlying benefit of both the company and underlying individuals. This paper mainly assesses problems with managers with low culture context, modification culture, compensation, contracts and national culture within the multinational organizations.

IntroductionAdvancing a multicultural, international labor force is normally taken as one of the principal requisites of contending within the global marketplace efficaciously (Stahl & Caligiuri, 2005, 603-9). Multicultural management team acts as a diverse nucleus providing the global company having a distinctive proficiency that is cumbersome for the underlying competitors to reproduce. In order to develop proficiency international companies ought to formulate new means of recognizing, attracting, motivation and retentive international management talent. Significance strategic competencies pertaining to the global organizations are the capability to amass the communal management skills to compete internationally (Barakat & Moussa, 2012, 30-9). Very few expatriate managers normally cross cultural barriers thus becoming exclusively accepted by the local country manager and corresponding employees. The limitation of the ideal overseas management manager transfer in regard to the ethnocentric organization use expatriates management positions, polycentric application of expatriates and local nationals to administer functions and third country nationals within economic and culturally distant assignments and expatriates within countries with relatively higher extent of comparison with the home country. In the past two decades, a new and basically diverse form of international commercial activities has advanced, massively increasing international economic and party-political interdependence. Few countries still remain inaccessible within the world of business enterprise (Newman, 2000, 189). Instead of merely purchasing resources and disposing goods to the foreign countries, Multi-National Companies currently make direct asset within completely integrated functions that mainly cover the continuum of prevailing goods and services (Stahl & Caligiuri, 2005, 603-9). Presently, MNC networks control big and developing share of the globe’s technology, publicizing and productive resources. The original reasoning for becoming multinational that is in escalating their markets, diversity, pursuing raw materials, new technology and production competence and avoiding the underlying party-political battles. This also entails avoidance of unionization and lessening of labor costs (Barakat & Moussa, 2012, 30-9). The biggest problem in regard to understanding the underlying cultures within which MNC functions thus going far to retool the extreme management style that transcend globally. The paper aims at identifying main problems encountered by the underlying expatriate manager from a low cultural context country in regard to undertaking management role within a foreign having lofty cultural context country. Strategies to advance expatriate productivity include organizational support in the form of advanced job training, cultural and language training, predeparture coupled with post arrival mentoring.

Problems encountered by the ExpatriateHigh and low context Communication problemsWithin high context communication, understanding of the message is cumbersome without breaking the underlying background information (Osland et al, 2000, 71-9). Low context communication normally spells out information more explicitly in regard to message thus managers from low culture context will encounter communication with employees and other managers. Cultures possessing western European backgrounds mainly depend heavily on the underlying low context communication, which is mainly experienced in countries such as Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand (Barakat & Moussa, 2012, 30-9). The rest of the universe tends to embrace high context communiqué. Naturally, high context communication occurs within low context culture. Conversely, low context communiqué is more common within high context cultures because of the Western influence and the need to quarter travellers and corresponding expatriates (Stahl & Caligiuri, 2005, 603-9). Low context cultures are the main proliferation signs.

Corporate problemsIn multinational company, Human Resource expatriates are mainly mandated with the duty of employing, motivating and rewarding the underlying employees within diverse countries from the entire universe. Within an ideal setting Human Resource managers are acquainted with the local customs and corresponding cultures from the states of workers (Rajasekar & Renand, 2013, 151-9). Nevertheless, this is normally challenging since it is incumbent upon the underlying Human Resource manager within countries in recompense and motivates the underlying workers of diverse country. Manager experienced a loss of cumbersomeness in working within foreign countries with high culture context since the policies and practices are not relevant thus requiring application of national culture (Newman, 2000, 189). Moreover, organizations ought to embrace internationally with entire obligation of the assortment of the local cultures.

Developing international pay strategies, companies require addressing the underlying strategies execution across an extensive range of diverse cultures (Rajasekar & Renand, 2013, 144-9). Thus, managers ought to ensure that the international strategy of cultures hence preventing encounter with the underlying practices and discernments within precise national cultures. Main international companies ought to distinguish that policies require be administering with the broad context of business policy and integrating into the work with the assistance of the prevailing elements of management. Company’s policy ought to possess every country’s operation in its own potential even though it is not essential within the company’s boundaries.

Every country and its corresponding own international operations undertake rational steps in regard to the manager’s point of view. Presently, companies are embracing national cultural differences whilst preserving work culture principles enhance populace to efficiently implement the underlying company’s strategic goals (Stahl & Caligiuri, 2005, 603-9). It is thus apparent that culture, a community’s programming possess both a pervasive and altering influence on every national corporate environment. International managers ought to recognize the prevailing influence pertaining to culture and are normally prepared in order to respond appropriately to the change in the culture context. Human behavior is considered to be an individual’s own peculiar personality and the corresponding individual’s communication with the underlying collective forces of specific society and culture they dwell. The prevailing cross cultural challenges pertaining to the management practice are distinctly a location where more research is required (Barakat & Moussa, 2012, 30-9).

The pressure of rise and lead bigger divisions is cumbersome for an expatriate manager who does not comprehend the underlying cultural nuances of functioning in foreign. Expatriates find it incapable to acclimatize to the foreign country’s cultural values coupled with interpersonal associations. Moreover, interpersonal associations are frequently depicted as the main reason for parting a company (Osland et al, 2000, 65-9). The cultural dimensions pertaining to management is mainly advanced Hofstede that aid to offer a foundation for business managers operating within foreign territories. The main dimensions pertaining to management encompass power distance, uncertainty evasion, individualism and masculinity. For an expatriate leading a national team within foreign country, it is essential to comprehend the cultural dimensions of management to advance productivity, escalate company profits and advancing relational associations. The underlying concept culture ought to be grasped in comprehending the prevailing process of cross cultural communication (Newman, 2000, 189). Because of escalate within globalization individual with numerous traits as manager trait in regard to the capability of managing cultural diversity.

Power distancePower distance which is degree to which the underlying society admits that power is distributed inequitably in the formation via dependents and superiors (Schuler, Jackson & Luo, 2003, 263-8). Within societies with elevated power distance, individuals with power appreciate superior status and pleasure than those not possessing power and subordinates are less likely to challenge or express corresponding incongruity with the underlying superiors (Rajasekar & Renand, 2013, 144-9). The prevailing rank structure is distinctly delineated amidst management and corresponding subordinates, and incongruity with management that is scowled.

Within power distance cultures is a prevalent belief as it corrupts and individuals without power possess no remedy for those having power thus the beliefs within communal management. In a relatively lower power distance society, communal management and subordinates providing bigger participation into the decisions is normal and putative practice (Stahl & Caligiuri, 2005, 603-9). A manager’s decision making style varies based on numerous external factors that aid in the determination the quantity of power distance within an organization, which encompass administrative structure, culture, external extortions, associations with corresponding subordinates and extent of conventionalism of the situation (Rajasekar & Renand, 2013, 152-9)

. Within high power distance associations there is virtually no understanding amidst the manager and corresponding subsidiary and a proper contract that is utilized to accomplish goals. For instance, foreign managers demand indisputable respect and loyalty and the underlying exuberant structure that is dignified and distinctly described amidst employees and the management (Barakat & Moussa, 2012, 30-9). The principle is mainly based on the Confucianism that permits weaker member to call on a superior. Managers from low cultural context normally operate in clearly defined lines establishing their authority whilst constructing a rapport with the employees within the foreign countries in regard to high cultural context (Petison & Johri, 2008, 745-9). This principle normally permits managers to aid those scrawnier positions by providing assistance. This is normally a big problem thus managers ought to establish distinct managerial power whilst concomitantly advancing associations that would permit dependents to requesting and receiving assistance.

Operations manager function for the United States Corporation within China normally quit their resign worthwhile position since they are incapable to gather respect of the workers. This is normally based on the managerial knowledge within the U.S, a relatively lower middle power distance culture (Newman, 2000, 189). The preparation for the cultural façades of managing within China and lack of knowledge concerning the countries cultural distinctions preventing accomplishing instantaneous feat in understanding principles of power distance that establish association of trust and respect the workers and corresponding management.

The problem of power distance can be solved via managers from low cultural context establishing their authority whilst constructing a rapport with the employees within the foreign countries in regard to high cultural context (Petison & Johri, 2008, 745-9). This principle normally permits managers to aid those scrawnier positions by providing assistance. Establishment of distinct managerial power whilst concomitantly advancing associations that would permit dependents to requesting and receiving assistance aids in solving the power distance problems.

Individualism problemIt mainly describes the association amidst the underlying individual and the instantaneous community. Within organizations, individualism is associated to the partiality for the manager decision making in dissimilarity within the societies possessing communal values, interpersonal associations and group relationship. Within the individualistic cultures, managers view themselves as independent from the corresponding organization whilst collective cultures mainly comprises with the managers identity.

Management is mainly related to the individualism and collectivism and varies across the underlying cultures. The self-sufficiency is also connected positively to the management in particular cultures (Barakat & Moussa, 2012, 30-9). In collectivistic culture managers from low cultural context normally sacrifice personal goals for the betterment of their job. This loyalty is mainly promoted across the entire aspects within the foreign culture encompassing workplace, which develop robust ties in regard to the team that is frequently employed in pursuing manager goals. Employee might forgo a promotion to continue work concept that is foreign to numerous Western expatriates working within foreign country. This problem can be solved by managers from low culture context sacrificing personal goals for the betterment of their job. This will promote loyalty across the entire aspects within the foreign culture encompassing workplace, which will subsequently aids in development of robust ties in regard to the team that is frequently employed in pursuing manager goals.

Uncertainty AvoidanceUncertainty avoidance is seen as the extent through which managers within a society feel uncomfortable with underlying ambiguous conditions. It normally takes place at diverse levels of any organization (Westwood & Leung, 1994, 64). For instance, high-ranking management from low cultural context might refuse a project with particular uncertain results in foreign countries with high cultural context. This result to implications of management characteristics and character which encompasses habitual, formal, cautious and corresponding outstanding from management. Within foreign country with lofty uncertainty avoidance, managers from high cultural context countries are more controlling, less amicable and less likely to representative to the corresponding subordinate as compared to the low avoidance complements (Stahl & Caligiuri, 2005, 603-9). This is because managers from foreign countries with high cultural context do not place considerable much trust within their employees since the underlying managers within other countries.

Exemplified characteristics possessing high uncertainty avoidance possess extremely cumbersome work environment that aids in the understanding of the cultural influences and guidance. Thus managers from low cultural context countries experience difficulties in evading unpleasant work environment. This calls for understanding of the underlying cultural dimensions of management explicitly those pertaining to the uncertainty avoidance that can salvage the situations. The problems pertaining to the uncertainty avoidance is solved via understanding of the underlying cultural dimensions of management explicitly those pertaining to the uncertainty avoidance that can salvage the situations.

MasculinityDegree of masculinity is a dominant value within the society with high cultural context in the foreign states. This is mainly due to the underlying decisiveness, material possessions. Managers in high cultural context are normally decisive, self-confident and belligerent that pose massive problem to the managers originating from countries with low cultural context. Moreover, the managers do not allow workers to question authority (Newman, 2000, 189). Particular feminine characteristics pertaining indirect and corresponding evasive and utilizing intuitive reasoning are frequently valued within management while objected within the masculine culture. Expatriate require approaching employees through diverse means. Managers from low cultural context countries possess relatively high masculine culture that demands decisive actions and aggressive behavior to the underlying employees (Barakat & Moussa, 2012, 30-9). Thus, they normally face numerous problems in high cultural context due to the masculine culture that extremely direct entire employees and management despite their natural tendency of evading conflicts. Masculinity problems can be solved via initiating and approaching underlying employees through diverse means. Managers from low cultural context countries ought to inculcate relatively high masculine culture that demands decisive actions and aggressive behavior to the underlying employees.

Cultural problemsCultures are shared values and beliefs of numerous societies, which is significant contextual factor affecting numerous of potential managers within a particular community, area and country (Schermerhorn, 1999, 246-9). Identification of the nature of the association amidst culture and management that is capable of offering governments with information essential for besieged programs intended to stimulate new investment conception thus escalating employment and adding nation’s economic vivacity and suppleness. Innumerable of cultural differences across countries show a fundamental role in shaping business associations. Therefore, the effort of developing strong theoretical framework for comprehension of culture’s influence within the international business associations is a problem to managers from low culture context operation. Solving the problems of culture entails identification of the nature of the association amidst culture and management that is capable of offering governments with information essential for besieged programs. The programs ought to be mainly intended to stimulate new investment conception thus escalating employment and adding nation’s economic vivacity and suppleness.

ConclusionThe underlying historic pattern of numerous companies in regard to adding international divisions was mainly to enforce the home country system on their corresponding foreign operations (Osland et al, 2000, 65-9). Organizations utilized this approach since the strategy is mainly to exploit the prevailing resources and market opportunities that are found within new regions but rather implement multicultural strategy. Nevertheless, foreign operations are more important and independent approaches that supplant the underlying practices that are more dependable with particular national cultures. There is robust correlation amidst the cultural dimensions and successful performance within organizations in diverse societies, which normally makes it extremely significant in the consideration and corresponding modifications on individual’s management style to suit the societal customs and culture of the prevailing foreign country (Barakat & Moussa, 2012, 30-9). The underlying cultural dimensions of management include power distance, individualism, masculinity and ambiguity avoidance that are fundamental for the business person in order to be recognize and applicable in management (Rajasekar & Renand, 2013, 144-9). Expatriate managers ought to be capable to identify the prevailing diverse cultural nuances amidst host country and corresponding management style that suit cultural and business conditions. Sensitivity to diverse cultures is necessary to successfully establishment of the associations with the prevailing workers and management. A multinational company’s accomplishment hinges on the managers capabilities in order to be cognizant of diverse cultural values. In same geographic regions, diverse countries possess peculiar cultural heritage that is responsible for shaping values and subsequently inspiration the conduct of business. MNC is utilized in definition of suitable objectives of the firm, attitudes towards risk, dealing with underlying workers and the competence to restrain unprofitable operations vary melodramatically from one country to the other (Stahl & Caligiuri, 2005, 603-9). Moreover, in countries cultural differences that exists via adoption of attention by the corresponding national firms.

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