Do not delete any part of this document. (I need it all for grading purposes.)
Format: This Word document is already formatted correctly for spacing, width, and font type and font size. I’ve placed three “returns” or blank lines after each question, so you can place your cursor at the second “return” and begin to type; this will keep you within the 6-in margins and in proper format.
How much to write: You know how in-depth you must be by looking at the number of points assigned for each question. Use this generalization: 58 – 68 words per point, depending on how concise you are; so a 3-point question requires around 175-200 words to answer fully; a 6-point essay may require up to 400 words.
1. Explain what it means to live sustainably on the earth’s natural income, and explain how it’s similar to living off the interest of your savings.
2. Describe the potential environmental harms and potential environmental benefits of affluence.
3. Critical Thinking: The poor who live in the U.S. and the poor who live in some of the poorest nations face different risks and also impact the environment in different ways. What differences can you think of? If you consult sources, please cite them. (2 points) I’ll give extra credit for extra insightful answers.
4. In your own words, explain the two major steps in the process of evolution: The development of genetic variety through mutations, and Natural selection.
5. What is speciation? What is the most common way in which speciation occurs? Describe the two phases of how new species arise.
6. Critical thinking: Energy Flow in Food Chains
In this long essay, you will aIDress certain basic scientific concepts essential for you to go forward in environmental biology.
Organization: Weave your answers into one cohesive essay (i.e., paragraphs; no lists). The average reader should be able to understand all terms by reading your essay. If you choose to copy definitions, use quotation marks and cite the page number. However, if you only give a list of cut-and-paste definitions, you will not earn much credit. Points will be given for your understanding of how the concepts relate to each other.
Background info: Trophic levels are governed by the interaction of bottom-up forces such as light, nutrients, climate, and very importantly, the amount of producers like plants and phytoplankton. But they’re also governed by top-down forces. Top keystone predators keep lower-trophic animal numbers in balance and help keep prey populations extremely fit. All this is very important to maintaining biodiversity and healthy ecosystems, and to prevent species extinction.
Q: Explain how the following concepts connect to each other to illustrate what happens to matter and energy in a food chain: Net Primary Productivity, Biomass, Pyramid of Energy Flow, and The Second Law of Thermodynamics. Include a full explanation of why food chains rarely have more than four trophic levels, and why top predators are often the first to go extinct when food chains are disrupted. What are the benefits to humans, wildlife, and entire ecosystems when humans eat at lower trophic levels? (6 points)
Short answer Note: These are not essays, so you may copy definitions and lists from your text or textbook figures, but you must cite the page number(s). Older editions may have a different number of factors, so give edition in your citation.
7. List the 5 basic causes of environmental problems according to your textbook.
8. List the eight natural resources and the ten natural services that make up natural capital according to your textbook figure “Natural Capital”.
9. List the nine ways we are degrading our natural capital according to your textbook figure “Natural Capital Degradation”.
10. Explain (i.e., give more than just definitions) how a scientific hypothesis becomes a scientific theory.
11. Thinking critically involves which 4 important steps?
Nutrient cycles: Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur, and water cycles have been altered by human activities. Please give short answers to the following questions.
12. According to your textbook, human activities release large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in what four ways?
13. Human activities release large amounts of nitrogen oxide (NO) to the atmosphere in what two ways? Why is this harmful?
14. In aIDition to aIDing excess fertilizer to soils, humans aID excess nitrates ([NO3]-) to bodies of water in what two ways?
15. Name three human activities that contribute to phosphate runoff.
16. Why are nitrate and phosphate runoff harmful to ecosystems?
17. Human activities release large amounts of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere in what three ways? Why is this harmful to ecosystems?
18. List the three major ways humans alter the water cycle and give the harmful effects of each of these.
Matching and Fill in the Blanks
Matching Type the correct letter into the space provided.
___ 19. Earthworms, some insects, and vultures
___ 20. Bacteria and fungi
___ 21. Organisms that are classified as primary consumers
Fill in the blanks
22. The compound represented by the formula CH4 is ____.
23. Sodium chloride is represented by the formula ____.
24. What percentage of the volume of the atmosphere does nitrogen gas (N2) make up? ____%.
Definitions: Be complete! Include references/textbook pages.
25. Define “unreliable science”.
26. Define and explain the following “Big Ideas” of Chapter 2:
a. Law of Conservation of Matter
b. First Law of Thermodynamics
c. Second Law of Thermodynamics
27. Distinguish between a positive feedback loop and a negative (corrective) feedback loop.
28. Compare and contrast nuclear fission with nuclear fusion.
29. What is the precise and thorough scientific definition of biological evolution?
30. What are fossils? How do scientists use them?
31. List 4 misconceptions about evolution through natural selection as well as the realities behind these misconceptions. (In other words, “One misconception is…, when in fact…”)
Don’t forget to place full textbook citation here at the bottom. (Once. Page numbers go with the answers.)